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1 Analytical Chemistry ABS-2

Potentiometric sensor for chromium(VI) using a composite of diphenylcarbazide-natural zeolite-modified membrane electrodes
Budi R. Putra (a), Rudi Heryanto (b,c), Eti Rohaeti (b), Laela Wulansari (c), Wulan T. Wahyuni (b,c)

(a) National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Gedung BJ Habibie, DKI Jakarta, 10340, Indonesia
(b) Analytical Chemistry Division, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
(c) Tropical Biopharmaca Research Center, Institute of Research and Community Empowerment, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia


The construction and performance of ion selective electrodes (ISEs) for the determination of chromium(VI) based on PVC membranes modified with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) and natural zeolite as ionophores are reported in this study. ISE was fabricated in an optimum composition of chromium(VI)-selective membrane consisting of 29 mol% DPC, 43.6 mol% natural zeolite, 25 mol% plasticizer, and 2.2 mol% PVC. The investigation of the performance of the proposed ISE was evaluated in terms of the Nernstian response, range of concentration, limit of detection, response time, and selectivity coefficient. The proposed ISE displayed a linear potential response over a concentration range of 10-1 - 10-6 M K2Cr2O7 with a Nernstian response of -28.8 mV/decade. Adequate sensitivity for chromium(VI) was offered by the proposed ISE, with a limit of detection of 2.14 x 10-6 M and a response time of ~250 seconds. The fabricated ISE has also been investigated in selectivity studies in the presence of Cu2+ and Fe3+ and was found to be more selective in the concentration range of 10-1 - 10-6 M. Therefore, a novel membrane electrode using a composite of DPC and natural zeolite as an ionophore has shown a satisfactory result for the direct potentiometric measurement of chromium(VI) in the presence of Cu2+ and Fe3+, which may have the potential to be used in real sample analysis.

Keywords: ion selective electrode, 1,5-diphenylcarbazide, zeolite, chromium(VI), PVC-based membrane, potentiometry

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Budi Riza Putra)

2 Analytical Chemistry ABS-34

Mashuni (1*)- Halimahtussaddiyah Ritonga (1)- M Jahiding (2)- Fitri Handayani Hamid (1)

1Department of Chemistry, Halu Oleo University, Kendari, 93132, Indonesia
2Department of Physics, Halu Oleo University, Kendari, 93132, Indonesia


Due to the large-scale use and high toxicity of pesticides, developing practical, sensitive, fast, and cost-effective pesticide detection sensors is very important. The potentiometer measurement method detects organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. This method was developed to determine three types of OPPs, namely chlorpyrifos, profenofos and diazinon, through AChE immobilization on Au electrodes covered with 115% (w/v) cellulose acetate (CA) and 25% (v/v) glutaraldehyde (GTA) membrane-coated Au electrodes. SEM showed that the CA/GTA membrane morphology had a smooth and lumpy surface, while the average diameter by 562.33 nm. The AChE biosensor based on a potentiometer as a pesticide detector showed inhibition values for chlorpyrifos pesticides of 14.44 to 73.08%, profenofos pesticides of 11.98 to 77.98%, and diazinon pesticides of 18.58 to 83.27% with each response time are 5 minutes. In addition, the CA/GTA membrane electrode has high sensitivity in the working concentration range of \(1 \times 10^{-9}\) to \(1.0 \mu g/L \) and a lower detection limit of \(1 \times 10^{-9} \mu g/L \) for profenofos and diazinon while \(1 \times 10^{-10} \mu g/L \) for chlorpyrifos. Using an AChE-based biosensor with a potentiometer is a susceptible device for efficient and fast detection of pesticide residues.

Keywords: acetylcholinesterase, organophosphate, sensor, potentiometer

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Mashuni Mashuni)

3 Analytical Chemistry ABS-60

Development of Cinnarizine Analysis Method in Human Blood Plasma Using UPLC MS/MS
Uswatun Hasanah(a*), Ade Heri Mulyati(a), Siti Amelia Zuchrofah(b)

a) Universitas Pakuan, Bogor, Indonesia
Jalan Pakuan, Baranangsiang, Bogor, Indonesia.
b) PT. Equilab International
Jalan Rumah Sakit Fatmawati Persil 33 Jakarta Selatan, Indonesia


Cinnarizine is a generic drug with properties as an antihistamine and a sedative that produces significant effects for preventing or treating motion sickness. Generic drugs have the same quality and pharmacological response as patent drugs, so it is necessary to do a BA/BE test to control the quality of generic drugs. This research has optimum conditions with the composition of the mobile phase ammonium acetate 5mM pH 4.5: acetonitrile (35:65) with a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. and an injection volume of 10 L, extraction using tert-butyl methyl ether (TBME) with a volume of 3 mL. The standard molecular mass of cinnarizine is 369.17 m/z with 167.02 m/z fragmentation. The standard molecular mass of loratadine is 383.07 m/z with 337.07 m/z fragmentation. Validation of the analytical method showed that human blood plasma blanks gave a response but were still included in the selectivity test^s acceptance criteria. The carry-over test indicates that there is no carry-over in the injection. LLOQ test shows analyte signal >5x blank signal. The linearity of the calibration curve is higher than 0.99. The accuracy test (% different) and precision (% RSD) are samples with low, medium, high and highest concentrations of \pm 15%, while the lowest concentration of \pm 20%. The dilution measurement met the requirements for percent different \pm 15% for and dilutions. Standard solutions are stable at storage temperatures for up to 18 days. Blood plasma samples containing cinnarizine were stable at room temperature for up to 6 hours, at storage temperature for 17 days and frozen for four cycles. The validation of the analytical method in this study refers to the EMA guidelines.

Keywords: Cinnarizine, Blood Plasma, TBME, Validation, UPLC MS/MS

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Uswatun Hasanah)

4 Analytical Chemistry ABS-64

Synthesis and Characterization of Rhodamine B Imprinted Polymer
Aria Pinandita, Muhammad Bachri Amran

Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Institut Teknologi Bandung


Rhodamine B was a synthetic dye of xanthene derivatives commonly used in the paint and textile industries. These dyes caused irritation of the respiratory system, has a carcinogenic effect, and at high concentrations caused liver damage. Rhodamine B has been used in processed foods because it provides a brighter and cheaper color. The aim of this research was to produce a molecularly imprinted polymer sorbents (MIP), which could be used in more selective, accurate, and precise for rhodamine B analysis. Polymer synthesis were produced by bulk polymerization method using rhodamine B as template molecule, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinker, and benzoyl peroxide as initiator in acetonitrile as porogen solvent. With mol ratio of template molecule : functional monomer : crosslinkers of 2:4:20, resulted MIP with imprinting factor (IF) of 1,2 for MIP with methacrylic acid monomer. MIP were characterized using an infra red spectrophotometry, SEM, and evaluated for adsorption ability.

Keywords: rhodamine B, molecularly imprinted polymer, methacrylic acid

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Aria Pinandita)

5 Analytical Chemistry ABS-81

An Alternative Way in Determining Mixed-Liquor Suspended Solids and Mixed-Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids Parameters Simultaneously Based on Wastewater Turbidity in Activated Sludge System
Casdi1, Jasmansyah1, Anceu Murniati1, Hernandi Sujono1, Arie Hardian1,*

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Informatics, Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani, Cimahi, West Java, Indonesia
*E-mail: arie.hardian[at]lecture.unjani.ac.id


In wastewater treatment with activated sludge systems, the Mixed-Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS) parameter which states the concentration of sludge in the aeration tank, and the Mixed-Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids (MLVSS) which state the biomass concentration of activated sludge is a parameter that must be controlled to maintain the population of microorganisms in the sludge. Both parameters correlated with turbidity since most turbidity is caused by particles suspended in water. Usually, MLSS and MLVSS are completed by gravimetric methods that are time-consuming, costly, and high-temperature risk, therefore a mathematical model can use in order to reduce the disadvantages of the gravimetric method. This study aimed to obtain a mathematical model that linked MLSS and MLVSS with turbidity, hence from the turbidity value can estimate the value of MLSS and MLVSS parameters. MLSS and MLVSS parameters were measured by gravimetric methods following the APHA 2540D and APHA 2540E methods, and the turbidity was measured by a spectrophotometer that following the ISO 7027 method. Two linear models showed a strong positive correlation between MLVSS-MLSS and MLSS-turbidity with the regression equation of MLVSS = 0.8773(MLSS) - 38.415 (N = 42 with R2 = 0.9581) and MLSS = 0.9104(Turbidity) + 4.0953 (N = 42 with R2 = 0.9391). MLVSS was calculated as an indirect correlation with turbidity, the equation was MLVSS = 0.7987 (Turbidity) - 34.8222. This study can be applied to reduce working time, analysis cost, and risk of work accidents.

Keywords: Activated sludge- MLSS- MLVSS- Turbidity- Wastewater

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Casdi )

6 Analytical Chemistry ABS-83

Green Synthesis of Nano-Hydroxyapatite Based on Chicken Eggshell And Its Evaluation As Toothpaste Ingredients
Yani Desianti1, Anceu Murniati1, Arie Hardian1*, Jasmansyah1, Annisa Ulfariedah1, Nadiar Zahrotul Zulfah1, Siti Asriyatul Fauziah1 , Atia Nurul Sidiq2 , Rachman Ardan2 , Indra Dwi Saputra3.

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Informatics, Jenderal Achmad Yani University, Jl. Terusan Jenderal Sudirman, Cimahi 40531, Indonesia, 2Department of Dental Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Dentistry, Jenderal Achmad Yani University, Jl. Terusan Jenderal Sudirman, Cimahi 40531, Indonesia, 3Badan Riset Inovasi Nasional (BRIN).


Chicken eggshell waste, which increases every year, has the potential to cause pollution due to microbial activity in the environment. The main content of chicken eggshell is calcium, which is about 94%, so it can be used as a material for synthetic nano-hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite is a ceramic mineral which is one of the basic ingredients of human bone and the first material to be synthesized because it has biocompatibility properties, excellent bioactivity and does not cause cytotoxic effects so that it directly forms bonds with body tissues. The advantages of using nano hydroxyapatite are increased absorption, reduced dose required, increased stability, increased mineralization ability of cells in vivo and has the potential to revolutionize hard bone and dental tissue implantation techniques. Synthesis of nano hydroxyapatite was carried out using the mechanosynthetic method, namely the dry method with High Energy Ball Mill milling with time variations of 0, 60, 120 and 180 minutes and characterized by XRF, XRD, PSA, and SEM. The characterization results show that the optimal milling time is 180 minutes. The XRD pattern shows the same 3 peaks as the ICSD database No.157481, namely at position 2&#952- 25.83&#730-- 31.76&#730-- and 32.27 . The purity of the nano phase hydroxyapatite 3 hours milling 98.9%. The crystal structure is hexagonal with lattice parameters a=b=9,4212A and c=6,8927A. It has a particle size of 95.3 nm with a crystal size of 18.70 nm. The Polydispersity Index value of -0.302 indicates the particles are well distributed. The nano hydroxyapatite synthesis obtained was applied as a toothpaste ingredient, in terms of the evaluation results, namely organoleptic, homogeneity, pH, viscosity, spreadability, foam formation, centrifugation test, Freeze Thaw, antibacterial test. The preparation of chicken egg shell toothpaste was declared stable and in accordance with the standards of physical stability parameters of toothpaste that had been set. Na-hydroxyapatite can

Keywords: Nanohydroxyapatite, chicken eggshell, high energy ball milling, toothpaste.

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Yani Desianti)

7 Analytical Chemistry ABS-92

Metabolite Profiling of Sidaguri (Sida rhombifolia) With Different Drying Method and Xanthine Oxydase Inhibitory Evaluation
Dea Silviani (a*), Mohamad Rafi (a, b, c), Utami Dyah Syafitri (d), Wulan Tri Wahyuni (a, c)

a) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, IPB University, Jl. Tanjung Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
b) Advanced Research Laboratory-Institute of Research and Community Service, IPB University, Jalan Palem Raya, Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
c) Tropical Biopharmaca Research Center, Institute of Research and Community Services, IPB University, Jl. Taman Kencana No. 3, Bogor 16128, Indonesia
d) Department of Statistics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, IPB University, Jl. Meranti kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor, 16680, Indonesia


Sidaguri (Sida rhombifolia) is a type of plant that has been widely used as traditional medicine because of its bioactive metabolites. The composition of metabolites in plants can be influenced by several factors, one of them is the drying process. This study aims to profiling metabolites in sidaguri with different drying methods and evaluate the xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. The different drying methods used are oven drying (OD), sun drying (SD), and air drying (AD) by keeping the moisture content below 10%. LC-MS/MS and FTIR were used to determine the metabolites profile of sidaguri based on untargeted metabolomic approach. Grouping of sidaguri based on different drying methods were done by using principal component analysis (PCA). The results of metabolite profiling using LC-MS/MS showed that 24 metabolites in the sidaguri extract with different drying methods. 15 metabolites were found in the OD extract, 16 in the SD extract, and 20 in the AD extract. The peak area of each confirmed metabolite was then classified using PCA. In the other side, absorbance at wave numbers 1500-800 cm-1 from FTIR spectra were used for grouping using PCA. It is known that the sidaguri extracts were separated based on their respective drying methods with the total variance that could be explained were 95% (LC-MS/MS) and 99% (FTIR). Evaluation of xanthine oxidase inhibition showed that sidaguri could inhibit the performance of the xanthine oxidase enzyme in converting xanthine to uric acid by as much 35.97% (OD), 45.93% (SD), and 22.84% (AD) at concentration 50 ppm.

Keywords: Metabolomics- Drying method- Sidaguri- Xanthine oxydase

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Dea Silviani)

8 Analytical Chemistry ABS-93

Metabolite Profiling and Antioxidant Activity of Sonchus arvensis L. Leaves Extract Based on Different Cultivation Age
Novia Laelatul Suwartiny (a*), Mohamad Rafi (a,b), Eti Rohaeti (a,b)

(a) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Jalan Tanjung-Dramaga Campus, IPB University, Bogor, 16680, Indonesia
(b) Tropical Biopharmaca Research Center, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia


Tempuyung (Sonchus arvensis L.) is one of the herbal plants that grow wildly and is included in the Asteraceae family. Differences in composition and concentration of phytochemical compounds and antioxidant activity can be identified based on cultivation age. Therefore this study aims to determine the metabolite profile and antioxidant activity of S. arvennsis leaves extract based on different planting ages (3, 4, and 5 months) using LCMSMS and FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric analysis. The study begins with the extraction of maceration in S. arvennsis leaves using ethanol p.a. We found the yields obtained at planting 3, 4, and 5 months are 13.02%, 8.97%, and 12.27%, respectively. Antioxidant activity is carried out using the DPPH method, and we obtained the percentage of inhibition of the extract (100 ppm) with planting ages of 3, 4, and 5 months 36.79%, 38.25%, and 37.57%, respectively. Based on the wave number value of the ftir spectrum, it can be seen that the functional groups contained in the tempuyung leaves extract samples such as hydroxyl, carbonyl, methyl functional groups, and so on. The results of the analysis using LCMSMS obtained 21 metabolites that have been successfully confirmed. FTIR spectra and LCMSMS chromatograms of S. arvensis extracts showed the same pattern but different in their intensities, which means there are differences in the concentration of metabolites in each extract. Using FTIR spectra absorbance and the peak area of the confirmed metabolites using LCMSMS combined with PCA, we could group S. arvensis based on cultivation ages. The combination of metabolite profiles and multivariate analysis PCA showed that there were differences in the distribution of secondary metabolites at different cultivation ages.

Keywords: chemometrics, FTIR, LC-MS/MS, metabolite, Sonchus arvensis

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Novia Laelatul Suwartiny)

9 Analytical Chemistry ABS-94

Metabolite profiling of Sida rhombifolia with different extracting solvents using LC-MS/MS and their antioxidant activity
Alfi Hudatul Karomah (a,b), Auliya Ilmiawati (a,c), Utami Dyah Syafitri (c,d), Mohamad Rafi (a,b,c)

(a) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Jalan Tanjung-Dramaga Campus, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
(b) Advance Research Laboratory, Institute of Research and Community Services, Jalan Palem-Dramaga Campus, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
(c) Tropical Biopharmaca Research Center, Institute of Research and Community Services, Jalan Taman Kencana No 3, Taman Kencana Campus, IPB University, Bogor 16128, Indonesia
(d) Department of Statistics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Jalan Meranti-Dramaga Campus, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia


Sida rhombifolia is one of the herbal plants that is often used as traditional medicine and also has antioxidant activity. The effectiveness of S. rhombifolia extract as a traditional medicine can be caused by the large number of active compounds extracted. Therefore, it is important to choose a solvent that can extract the most optimum bioactive metabolites. This study aimed to evaluate differences in antioxidant activity and metabolite profiles in S. rhombifolia extracts due to differences in extraction solvents. Samples were extracted with EtOH pa, EtOH 70 percent, EtOH 50 percent, EtOH 30 percent, and water. Free radical scavenging activity of S. rhombifolia extract was determined using the DPPH method. UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS combined with multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the different metabolites in each extract. S. rhombifolia extract has free radical inhibitory activity ranging from 45.18 to 68.62 percent. A total of 34 metabolites were putatively identified, most of which were ecdysteroids, flavonoid, and fatty acids. The 70 percent EtOH extract contained the highest number of identified metabolites. Using the peak intensity of the whole chromatogram, PCA succeeded in classifying each extract based on the extraction solvent. The combination of metabolite profiles and multivariate analysis showed that there were differences in the distribution of metabolites in each extract.

Keywords: chemometrics, metabolomics, Sida rhombifolia, UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Alfi Hudatul Karomah)

10 Analytical Chemistry ABS-95

Metabolite Profiling and Antioxidant Activity of Tempuyung (Sonchus arvensis L.) Leaf Extract Based on Different Drying Method
Safirah Zam Astari (a), Eti Rohaeti (a), Mohamad Rafi (a)

a) IPB University, Jl. Raya Dramaga Kampus IPB Dramaga Bogor 16680 West Java, Indonesia


Tempuyung (Sonchus arvensis L.) is a wild plant that belongs to the Asteraceae family. Different drying processes can affected different composition and concentration of phytochemical compounds and the antioxidant activity of tempuyung leaves. This study aims to determine the metabolite profile and antioxidant activity of tempuyung leaves based on different drying methods using LC-MS/MS and FTIR. This research was conducted by maceration extraction on tempuyung leaves using ethanol p.a. The yields obtained on oven, sun, and air drying are 11.35, 9.01, and 7.08 respectively. The antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method and the % inhibition at the extract concentration of 100 ppm by drying in the oven, sun, and air are 48.36%- 45.90%- and 42.45%, respectively . Then an analysis was carried out using LC-MS/MS and FTIR to obtain data in the form of chromatograms and the spectrum of metabolites contained in each extract. There were similar patterns but different intensities indicating differences in the concentration of metabolites in each extract. The data was then processed by multivariate principal component analysis (PCA), with the results of the tempuyung leaves extract grouped based on the drying method. The classification of tempuyung leaf extract based on different drying methods with FTIR, base peak chromatogram on LC-MS/MS, and confirmed compounds on LC-MS/MS resulted in a score plot PCA with the number of PCs being 100%, 52%, and 86%, respectively.

Keywords: FTIR- LC-MS/MS- metabolite- PCA- Sonchus arvensis

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Safirah Zam Astari)

11 Analytical Chemistry ABS-111

Ferrocene Modified Carbon Paste Electrode in Determination of Dopamin HCl using Differential Pulse Voltammetry Technique
Irdhawati, Gede Permana Rakasiwi, James Sibarani

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science, Udayana University, Bukit Jimbaran Bali 80361 Indonesia.
E-mail: irdhawati[at]unud.ac.id


The research about the detection of dopamine by differential pulse voltammetry technique using carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified by ferrocene (CPE- Fc) has been carried out. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of the working electrodes and applied to determine the levels of dopamine HCl in commercial samples. The result obtained, pH optimum was found at 4.0, composition of ferrocene was 0.6% in carbon paste, and scan rate for CPE at 15 mV/s, increase to be 20 mV/s using CPE-Fc. The linier concentration range of CPE-Fc was at \( 20 - 800 \mu M \), wider than CPE at \( 50 - 300 \mu M \). The detection and quantification limits of CPE-Fc obtained at \( 0.0814 \mu M \) and \( 0.0825 \mu M \), which was smaller than EPK at \( 0.0885 \mu M \) and \( 0.0888 \mu M \), respectively. Repetition of measurements had Horwitz ratio values smaller than 2, for both of CPE and CPE-Fc. The percentage of recovery for dopamine HCl in the presence of sample solution as matrix was found at (89.92 \( \pm \) 0.81)% and (99.05 \( \pm \) 0.17)%, for sample A and B. The result of measurements of dopamine HCl in sample A and B were obtained 190.40 mg/mL and 38.64 mg/mL, with the conformity result of 95.20% and 96.62% with its labels. It can be concluded that the addition of ferrocene in carbon paste can improve the performance of working electrode.

Keywords: Carbon paste electrode, differential pulse voltammetry, dopamine HCl, ferrocene

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Irdhawati Irdhawati)

12 Analytical Chemistry ABS-122

Adsorbent Synthesis from Albizia Wood (Albizia chinensis) for Heavy Metal Adsorbents in Various Industrial Waste Water Pollutants.
Yulia Sukmawardani, Siti Jualiah, Pina Pitriana, Cucu Zenab Subarkah

UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung


This study aims to synthesize adsorbents from various natural materials for heavy metal adsorbents in various industrial wastes. The first thing to do is to prepare a sample of the adsorbent from the sawdust. Then the adsorbent was activated with H3PO4 3N for 24 hours. After activation, characteristic analysis was carried out using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) Jeol type 6510A. Furthermore, the adsorbent is used for the adsorption process on samples of textile waste, laundry waste, and chemical equipment waste. Then carry out quantitative analysis of heavy metals through the SAA test. After that, the parameters measured include DO, BOD, COD, TDS, and TSS. The synthesis of albasia wood (Albizia chinensis) adsorbent for adsorption of industrial waste gave a significant change where Cu metal was detected from the three samples 0.017 ppm- 0.006 ppm and 0.026 ppm. After the adsorption process, the metal content was not detected or became TE (Trash Element). The results of DO, BOD, COD, TDS, and TSS also showed a decrease after the adsorption process. These results indicate that the adsorption process can reduce the levels of pollutants in the wastewater of various industries.

Keywords: Adsorbent Synthesis, Albizia Wood

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Yulia Sukmawardani)

13 Analytical Chemistry ABS-136

Study of Nitrogen Fixation with Artificial Photosynthesis by Employing Tandem of TiO2 Nanotube/N719 Dyes Solar Cell and Ti3+/TiO2 Nanotube Electrode in Catalytic Zone
Ni Wayan Yuningrat 1,*, Muhammad Refaldhie Ariansyah1, Rahmat Wibowo 1, and Jarnuzi Gunlazuardi 1

University of Indonesia


The ammonia production using the photocatalytic of TiO2 reduced was low and needed a long operation. This research used a tandem system between the TiO2 nanotubeN719 dyesensitized solar cell and the Ti3TiO2 electrodes in the photoelectrochemical zone. The TiO2 nanotubeN719 was synthesized by anodizing the Ti foil in the ethylene glycol electrolyte consisting of 0.3%(ww) NH4F and 2%(ww) H2O at 40 V for 45 minutes and then immersed in the 0.3 mM N719 dye solution for 24 hours. The fabricated sandwich of TiO2 nanotubeN719 and FTOPt was filled with II3 electrolyte in acetylacetone. The Ti3TiO2 was synthesized by electrochemical reduction at 1.5 V in 0.1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte for 20 and 50 minutes. The 0.6 mLmin of nitrogen gas was injected into the reactor during 12 hours of irradiation. The production of ammonia was dissolved in 0.01 M HCl and analyzed by the phenate method. The research result reveals that the Ti3TiO2 nanotube 20 minutes has a bandgap energy of 3.05 eV and Urbach energy of 1.12 eV, which absorbs visible light more effectively than the other TiO2 nanotube reduced. In addition, its photocurrent density increased by 0.027 mikroAcm2. The tandem system produces 48.7 mikroM ammonia and reaches 0.09% efficiency.

Keywords: ammonia, dye-sensitized solar cell, photoelectrochemical, Ti3+/TiO2 nanotube, TiO2 nanotube/N719, visible light.

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Ni Wayan Yuningrat)

14 Analytical Chemistry ABS-137

Soja Siti Fatimah, Arbiansyah Aldhafi, Abraham Mora

Departement of Chemistry Education, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Education


Silver metal has the best thermal and electrical conductor properties among all metals, so it can be used in electrical applications. The use of silver in a wider field, it is necessary to look for it as a secondary source. One of the industrial wastes containing silver metal is printed circuit boards (PCBs). This research was carried out beginning from the synthesis of glyceline DES with the row materials of choline and glycerol, which was then used for leaching silver from PCB waste as an environmentally friendly leachate. The resulting glycerin DES was characterized physically and chemically. DES glycerin is a colorless, viscous liquid, and has a density of 1.1379 g/mL at 250C. The DES characterization of glycerin with the FTIR instrument showed an increase in the peak area of the -OH functional group. The results of silver leaching from PCBs waste were analyzed using XRF resulting recovery at 74.32% obtained at a leaching temperature of 1200C, 3x8 hours, at 1000 rpm. The leached filtrate was carried out by electrodeposition of silver using the cyclic voltammetry method with Au, Ag/AgCl, and Pt as the working electrode, reference electrode, and counter electrode, respectively.

Keywords: DES Glyseline, leaching, PCBs

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Soja Siti Fatimah)

15 Analytical Chemistry ABS-158

Dian Ayu Setyorini, Indra Noviandri, Muhammad Bachri Amran

Institut Teknologi Bandung


Curcumin is a natural compound from Curcuma longa that is attractive to be explored. Curcumin has become a popular object regarding the claims to be anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacteria, etc. Many studies have been conducted to investigate its properties. Curcumin has high solubility in ethanol and base solution. Hence, this study investigated the solubility and stability of curcumin in water-based solution by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Meanwhile, the electrochemical behavior was investigated by using the voltammetric method. Curcumin is not only attractive as an analyte but also as a modifier of electrode. It can be transformed to AgNPs(curcumin) to enhance electrochemical performance. The synthesis was conducted under sunlight radiation. The results showed that the solubility of curcumin in ethanol decreased linearly following the addition of water. But, the presence of NaOH could increase the solubility of curcumin and maintain its stability. The cyclic voltammetry presented the oxidation of curcumin in an aqueous solution occurred at pH 8.0 by using Au as the working electrode, Pt as the counter electrode, and Ag/AgCl (3 M) as the reference electrode. Curcumin also could be transformed to AgNPs(curcumin) and increase the anodic and cathodic peak of K3[Fe(CN)6] and K4[Fe(CN)6], indicating its potential as the modifier of the working electrode.

Keywords: curcumin, aqueous solution, modified carbon paste electrode, AgNPs, electrochemical detection.

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Dian Ayu Setyorini)

16 Analytical Chemistry ABS-186

Arij Mahmoud Ahmed Abdalla (a*), Prof. Dr. M. Bachri Amra (b),Dr. Handajaya Rusli 2

a)Kimia, Bandung Institute of Technology
Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia


. Sudan is highly dependent on diesel. Diesel is used in agriculture machines, transportation, and other applications. This study has been carried out to manufacture biodiesel from Jatropha curcas seed oil. Jatropha was chosen because it is not edible there will not pose a new problem to humans regarding food competition. This research successfully extracted oil from Jatropha curcas seed using n-hexane solvent with a 39% yield. Jatropha curcas seed oil was then analyzed and compared to a standard specification. The oil than converted to biodiesel by alkaline transesterification process with a conversion yield of 92 %. The properties such as flash point, acid value, viscosity, iodine value, density, copper corrosion, cetane number, sulphated ash, pour point, free glycerol, and total glycerol contents were 174&#8451-, 0.17mg KOH/g, 8.912 mm2/s, 102 g I2/100 g, 895.8 kg/m3, class1.51, 0.0047 %, -3 &#8451-, 0.01 %,0.03 %, respectively. These quantities obtained were compared with ASTM D6751, EN14214, and ASTM 975 specifications. Those properties showed the biodiesel produced met most of the biodiesel standards. The GC-MS data showed the FAME has a 16-22 carbon chain and still has monoglycerides, diglycerides, and triglycerides.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Transesterification, Jatropha curcas, FAME

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Arij Mahmoud Ahmed Abdalla)

17 Analytical Chemistry ABS-188

Optimization of Carbon Paste Electrode Modified with Carbon Nanotube and Molecularly Imprinted Poly (3-aminophenol) for Voltammetric Determination of Paracetamol
Abraham Mora (a), Indra Noviandri (b*)

a) Department of Chemistry Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
Jl. Dr. Setiabudi No.229, Isola, Bandung

b) Chemistry Department, Institut Teknologi Bandung
Jl. Ganesa No.10, Bandung


Various methods had been developed for the analysis of paracetamol, including voltammetry techniques using carbon paste electrodes (CPE) as working electrodes. CPE has great electrical conductivity, easy-made, as well as economical price. However, CPE has drawbacks in terms of selectivity as many electroactive analytes could undergo redox reaction on the surface of CPE. Moreover, CPE needs to be modified with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) to improve selectivity.
In this research, we did a study to know the optimum condition in the fabrication of the modified working electrodes. We optimized the number of electropolymerization cycles, type of supporting electrolytes, and the concentration of dispersed CNT. As the result, carbon paste electrode modified by carbon nanotube and molecularly imprinted poly(3-aminophenol)-(CPE-CNT-MIP) as a working electrode had been successfully optimized. A 2 mg/ml carbon nanotube dispersant in DMF was dispersed over the CPE. Electropolymerization and removal process is conducted by cyclic voltammetry (CV) by 15 and 10 cycles respectively in the potential range of -0,2V-1,2V, with the scanning rate of 100 mV/s. HClO4 was used as a supporting electrolyte. These variables showed the best performance to analyze paracetamol samples using voltammetry.

Keywords: carbon paste electrode, voltammetry, paracetamol, modified electrode, carbon nano tube

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Abraham Mora)

18 Analytical Chemistry ABS-190

Heavy metals substance (Cd, Hg, and Pb) in marine fish and the potential health risks for people (Case study: Fish consumption in West Java)
Tiny Agustini Koesmawati1,2 , Feby Febrianti2, Riyan Halim2, Novi Fitria1,2

1 Research Center for Environmental and Clean Technology, National Research and Innovation Agency, Cisitu Bandung, Indonesia
2 Chemical Departement, Sekolah Tinggi Analis Bakti Asih, Padasuka No.233, Indonesia


Fish has many benefits for humans. However, it is crucial to ensure that the fish consumed by humans are safe from heavy metals that can harm humans health. Heavy metals monitoring in fishes is highly important to ensure food safety and consumers protection. The level of harm of the heavy metals, such as Mercury, Tin, and Cadmium, highly depend on the chemical structure of the metals. Organic mercury (methyl mercury) is more harmful than the inorganic mercury. The data is collected to analyse the Mercury level in fish using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry (CV-AAS), with two different drying methods (using oven and freeze dryer). From the findings, it can be concluded that in the types of fish commonly consumed in West Java, such as tuna, bandeng, and bawal, the Cadmium and Mercury level are under the SNI 7387:2009 standards which is 0.3 mg/kg, while the Tin level is above the standard. The measurement is based on the data obtained by calculating the heavy metals contained in marine fish, the frequency in fish consumption, and the weight of respondents. The Cadmium, Mercury, and Tin contained in fishes consumed in West Java do not show harmful health risks for people who consumed them because the total RQ value is <1 (0.0753).

Keywords: Heavy metals, marine fish, human^s health, West Java

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Tiny Agustini Koesmawati)

19 Analytical Chemistry ABS-198

A. Khoiruddin Yusuf (1), N. Fitri (2*), M. Idris (3) , S. Khoirul Himmi (4), N. Nurfajrin Solihat (5)

(1) Study Program of Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Universitas Islam Indonesia
(2) Magister of Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Universitas Islam Indonesia
(3) Stikes Rejakwesi Bojonegoro
(4) Research Center for Applied Zoology, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN)
(5) Research Center for Biomass and Bioproducts, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN)


The aim of this research is to formulate a nanoemulsion of salam leaf extract as an active ingredient of antioxidant serum. The steps of this research include (1) extraction by maceration and Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE)- (2) Extract characterization- (3) formulation of nanoemulsion using the Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS) method- (4) Nanoemulsion testing: stability test, antioxidant activity test, and irritation test- and (5) nanoemulsion identification and characterization which includes LC-MS analysis, particle size, percentage transmittance, pH, and viscosity. The results showed that: (1) yields of the maceration method and MAE were 2.48% and 1.97% respectively- (2) antioxidant compounds in Salam leaf extract that were identified by LC-MS are Isorhamnethin, Icariin, Quercetin-3-O-di-hexose-O-pentoside, Proanthocyanidin tetramer, Procyanidin A-type trimer arabinoside, and Morusin isomer- The IC50 of the maceration and MAE extract were 17.1 ppm and 20.78 ppm- (3) Nanoemulsions were made in 3 formulas (0.1- 0.3- and 0.5 g) with fixed variables of capryol 90, tween 20, and PEG 400 (1.5- 2.5- and 1)- (4) stability test showed that only F1 was stable- the IC50 value of nanoemulsion is 950.3183 ppm- and the F1 irritation test showed no erythema and edema- (5) The particle size of F1 is 124.6 nm with a transmittance value of 96.6%, a pH of 5.45, and a viscosity of 79.07 cP.

Keywords: Salam Leaf, Nanoemulsion, Antioxidant, facial Serum, SNEDDS

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (NOOR FITRI)

20 Analytical Chemistry ABS-199

Siti Oryza Sativa1,*, Muhammad Ali Zulfikar1, Yanti Rachmayanti1, and Wibawa Hendra Saputera2

1Department of Chemistry, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jawa Barat, 40132, Indonesia
2Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jawa Barat, 40132, Indonesia


Metal oxide nanoparticles can be synthesized by sol gel method which a wet chemical method for fabrication of nanostructural materials. Binary oxide system semiconductors of TiO2 ZnO have been synthesized by simple sol gel method followed by calcination temperature at 500 C, 600 C, and 700 C. The band gap energy was measured using spectrophotometer Ultra Violet Visible and Diffuse Reflectance. We calculate both of direct and indirect transition electronic using Kubelka Munk function and Tauc plot. The result showed that increasing calcination temperature, lowering band gap energy of synthesized materials. Lowest band gap was observed on TiO2 ZnO calcinated at 700 C which 2.98 eV for direct transition electronic and 2.85 eV for indirect transition electronic. For further study, it indicates that synthesized materials could be used as photocatalysis material under visible light spectrum ranges from 410 to 440 nm. In conclusion, calcination temperature can decrease the band gap energy of TiO2 ZnO.

Keywords: TiO2/ZnO- sol gel- photocatalyst- calcination- band gap.

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Siti Oryza Sativa)

21 Analytical Chemistry ABS-200

Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Kabau pod extract
Muhamad Allan Serunting(a,b), Muhammad Ali Zulfikar (a), Henry Setiyanto (a)

a) Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40135, Indonesia
* muhamad.serunting[at]ki.itera.ac.id
b) Department of Chemistry, Institut Teknologi Sumatera, Lampung 35365


Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using silver nitrate as a precursor through an efficient green route using the kabau pod extract as a reducing and capping agent. Several characterization instrument parameters were used to confirm the formation of silver nanoparticles. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectra measured using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer peaked at 421 nm, confirming that silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized. Measurement of the size distribution and zeta potential of nanoparticles using dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that the resulting silver nanoparticles were mono dispersion is 58.9 nm with a polydispersity index (PdI) 0.283 and stable for more than 15 weeks. The zeta potential value is negative 32.2 mV. The easy and low energy consumption synthesis of silver nanoparticles can use chemical reduction methods. We are choosing kabau pods extract as reducing and stabilizing agents because kabau pods only are household waste and traditional markets. The chemical reduction occurs due to the kabau pods extract containing phytochemical compounds (alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phenolics, and steroids). In addition, it was also confirmed by the Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) instrument showing vibrations in the hydroxyl group- carboxyl and amine are involved as reducing and stabilizing agents.

Keywords: Silver Nanoparticles- Kabau pod extract- Green synthesis

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Muhamad Allan Serunting)

22 Analytical Chemistry ABS-221

Preparation and Characterization Of Chitosan-Glutaraldehyde/Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Electrodes
Anceu Murniati1, Restu Muchammad Ibrahim1, Intan Mulya Ewangga1, Esti1, Buchari Buchari2, Suryo Gandasasmita2, Zeily Nurachman3, Arie Hardian1, Jasmansyah1 , Hernandi Sujono1 and Senadi Budiman1

1Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Faculty of Sciences and Informatics
Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani, Jl. Terusan Jenderal Sudirman, Cimahi, Indonesia
2Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung 40132, Indonesia
3Biochemistry Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung 40132, Indonesia


Currently, the development of biosensors using chitosan is a concern, because it is abundant, non-toxic, and environmentally friendly. Biosensors based on chitosan have advantages such as fast response, high conductivity, good repeatability, and relatively low cost. However, chitosan has a weakness with its rigid and brittle nature, so some other chemicals are needed to improve its functional properties. In this research, the addition of glutaraldehyde and zinc oxide (ZnO) are studied which are expected to improve the mechanical properties of the biosensor for formaldehyde detection applications. Chitosan-glutaraldehyde/ZnO nanoparticle modified copper working electrode preparation was prepared by heating for about 30 minutes (a mixture of 2% chitosan, 0.6% ZnO nanoparticles, and 1% Glutaraldehyde) until a thin film was formed on the surface of the Cu working electrode. The characterization of the working electrode has been studied using cyclic voltammetry in two supporting electrolyte solutions, namely 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7.0 and 0.01 M K3[Fe(CN6)] solution. The results of the study obtained a cyclic voltammogram profile at a scan rate of 25, 50, 75, and 100 mV/s with a potential window of -1,000 mV to 1,000 mV. Cyclic voltammogram information provides a stable and optimal response at a scan rate of 75 mV/s using 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution pH 7.0 and a scan rate of 50 mV/s using 0.01 M K3[Fe(CN6)] solution. Chitosan-Glutaraldehyde/Zn) the nanoparticle-modified copper working electrode has been characterized based on FTIR and SEM-EDS images

Keywords: electrode, Chitosan, ZnO nanoparticles, Glutaraldehyde, Cyclic Voltammetry

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Anceu Murniati)

23 Analytical Chemistry ABS-227

Formaldehyde electrochemical sensor using Chitosan-Glutaraldehyde/ZnO-Nanoparticles Electrode
Anceu Murniati1, Ashary Fathul Hafidz1, Teuku Brany Dewan Akbar1, Esti1, Arie Hardian1, Buchari Buchari2, Suryo Gandasasmita2, Zeily Nurachman3

1Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Faculty of Sciences and Informatics
Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani, Jl. Terusan Jenderal Sudirman, Cimahi, Indonesia
2Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung 40132, Indonesia
3Biochemistry Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung 40132, Indonesia


It is necessary to develop sensitive, selective, and accurate analytical sensor technology for the determination of formaldehyde because formaldehyde is very dangerous to health. The use of formaldehyde as food preservatives has long been prohibited by the government, but there are still some sellers using formaldehyde. In this research, we studied the use of glassy carbon electrodes and copper electrodes coated with chitosan-ZnO nanoparticles crosslinked with glutaraldehyde for the application of formaldehyde biosensors in food. Chitosan is a biodegradable natural polymer and the addition of ZnO nanoparticles to the chitosan-glutaraldehyde modification is expected to increase the stability and sensitivity of the working electrode as a formaldehyde biosensor with the cyclic voltammetry method. The profile of the cyclic voltammogram of the standard formaldehyde solution (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 mg/L) showed a typical pattern using a glassy carbon electrode and a chitosan-ZnO/glutaraldehyde electrode with a scan rate of 25 mV/s, 50 mV/ s, 75 mV/s, and 100 mV/s. The results of the analysis the samples of wet noodles have been achieved at a scan-rate of 100 mV/s and potential range -1000 to 1000 mV obtained formaldehyde concentrations in the range of 1-5 mg/L. The chitosan-ZnO/glutaraldehyde film layer was analyzed by FTIR and SEM-EDS.

Keywords: Sensor, chitosan-formaldehyde, ZnO nanoparticles, voltammogram

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Anceu Murniati)

24 Analytical Chemistry ABS-228

Santhy Wyantuti*, Uji Pratomo, Yeni W. Hartati, Amelia Shafira, Ari Hardianto, Husein Hernandi Bahti

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang Km.21, Jatinangor, Sumedang, Indonesia 45363


Gadolinium (Gd) is an important material for advanced technology, hence, the development of a sensitive and efficient alternative for the Gd-detection method to reduce the dependency on complicated and expensive methods has been massively investigated. Furthermore, the combination of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and the experimental design to detect Gd provides a simple, effective, and efficient method. The optimum conditions used for this study showed an amplitude modulation of 0.0884V, potential deposition of 1.4382V, and deposition time was 60.3615s with the obtained recovery value, accuracy, and precision values being 98.37%, 95.91%, and 5.12% in relative standard deviation (RSD), respectively. Meanwhile, the detection and quantization limit values are 3.46 mg/L and 11.53 mg/L, respectively. Under optimum conditions, the presence of Gd in acetonitrile is determined in a mixture with Eu and Sm.

Keywords: Gadolinium- Differential Pulse Voltammetry- Acetonitrile- Box-Behnken

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Uji Pratomo)

25 Biochemicals and Biofuels ABS-37

Muhammad Zarin Amin Bin Zainal(a), Harumi Veny(a*), Fazlena Hamzah (a), Miradatul Najwa Muhammad Rodhi (a), Andri Cahyo Kumoro (b), Sarina Sulaiman (c), Rozana Azrina Sazali (a)

(a) School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA,Shah Alam 40450, Selangor Malaysia
(b) Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Diponegoro. Semarang, Indonesia
(c) Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Kulliyyah of Engineering International Islamic University Malaysia


Transesterification is a chemical reaction from the conversion of triglycerides contained in vegetable oils and fat into biodiesel Unlike other vegetable oil, crude palm oil (CPO) has the advantage of high production yield, with abundant sustainability available. In Biodiesel industry acyl acceptor such as alcohol are commonly used, but it is very toxic and can deactivate the enzyme as biocatalyst. Thus, in this study, methyl acetate is selected as an acyl acceptor, as it is not toxic and can produce triacetin as by-product. The major problem when directly using CPO as feedstock for Biodiesel production is its impurities content such as Free fatty acid and phospholipid, which may cause problems in interesterification and lead to low yield. Hence in our study, we compare the effect of non pretreatment and pretreatment of CPO on Biodiesel yield and the Molar ratio of CPO to methyl acetate, from 1:3 to 1:12. The enzyme used was immobilized lipase A from \textit{Candida antartica}. Our finding showed that the major compositions of Methyl ester in Biodiesel were different when using pretreated CPO and non-pretreated CPO. Both pretreated and non-pretreated CPO can be used as feedstock in interesterification for Biodiesel production. Depending on the molar ratio selected, the Low molar ratio is preferable for non-pre-treated CPO and the Higher molar ratio for the pre-treated CPO.

Keywords: Lipase catalyzed Interesterification, Pretreatment, Crude Palm Oil, Biodiesel

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Harumi Veny)

26 Biochemicals and Biofuels ABS-142

Budi Saputra, Randi Kristiani, Retno Diyah Utari, Jasmansyah , Senadi Budiman, Tiani Yunita, Tiana Yunita, Siti Rosita

Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani


Diseases that are currently a problem in the health sector are infectious diseases is caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. Efforts to overcome these diseases usually use antibiotics, however, the use of antibiotics in uncontrolled treatment can lead to resistance. Therefore, there is a need for new alternative treatments that are safer and cheaper in terms of cost, for example by utilizing natural ingredients, one of which is rosella (Hibiscus sabdarifa L). The purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of rosella flower extract and nanoparticles of rosella flower extract against Eschericia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis. Rosella flower research was carried out by extraction steps with maceration method using ethanol as solvent. The extracts obtained were tested for phytochemical and antibacterial tests using the diffusion method, then the extracts were made into nanoparticles by the ionic gelation method and the nanoparticles were characterized by PSA, Zeta Potential and FTIR and then tested for antibacterial using the diffusion method. The ethanolic extract of rosella flower contains secondary metabolites of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, phenolics, terpenoids, and triterpenoids and provides antibacterial activity against E coli bacteria with strong potential, S aureus, and S epidermidis. The resulting nanoparticles with a particle size of 499.03 nm and have weak potential as antibacterial against E coli, S aureus, and S epidermidis bacteria, so it can be seen that the extract has a higher antibacterial potential than nanoparticles.

Keywords: Hibiscus sabdarifa L, Phytochemicals, Antibacterial, Eschericia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, nanoparticles

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Budi Saputra)

27 Biochemicals and Biofuels ABS-143

Detection of Pig DNA in Beef Satay Using Polymerase Chain Reaction
Tina Dewi Rosahdi*, Yuni Cahyani, Gina Giftia Azmiana Delilah, Assyifa Junitasari

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung


Satay is one of the processed meat products that are one of favorite foods for Indonesian people. Satay products are generally known to be based on beef. By mixing with pork, beef adulteration is frequently found in the food based on beef. This study aimed to detect the presence of pig DNA in some beef satay for sale in Bandung. A total of four beef satay samples was used in this study with pork as positive control and beef as negative control. The beef satay samples, pork, and beef that had been milled were then performed DNA isolation following the Dneasy Mericon Food Kit Protocol. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed to determined pork genes that carried out as many as 30 cycles. A specific fragment of pork (mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt-b) gene) was used as genetic marker (forward and reverse primers) with an amplicon length of 130 bp. Based on PCR results it is known that all of the four beef satay samples and beef as negative control did not contain pork marked by the absence of a DNA band that appeared and parallel to the 130 bp band on the ladder. There is a DNA band on the pork as positive control with a length of 130 bp. The results showed that of the four beef satay samples, none of the samples were suspected to contain pork.

Keywords: Beef Satay, Cytochrome b, pig DNA, Polymerase Chain Reaction

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Tina Dewi Rosahdi)

28 Biochemicals and Biofuels ABS-164

Potential of Cellulose Palm Oil Empty Bunches (Elais guinensiss Jacq) as Bioethanol Materials
Indriani Febrishaummy* , Hernandi Sujono , Jasmansyah , Dewi Yandriani , Albertus Bulet Tapun , Akhmad Marjan

Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani
Jl. Terusan Jenderal Sudirman, Cimahi


Palm oil waste has a large cellulose, the decline in crude oil reserves in Indonesia and the rising population give rise the idea to make use palm oil waste as an alternative energy. The main object of this research is to know cellulose content and utilize cellulose extract produced as bioethanol material. This research consisted of four phases: cellulose isolation with 6% NaOH concentration yielding cellulose content of 52%. Hydrolysis cellulose substrate with Trichoderma viride that produces cellulase enzyme. The concentration of reducing sugar compound resulting from the hydrolysis process is determined by the Somogyi Nelson method. The highest reducing sugar produced was 7,095 mg / mL at 25% concentration and 48 hours incubation time, then the hydrolyzate was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae at pH 4.5 and incubation time 24 hours and 48 hours.

Keywords: Palm Oil, Cellulose, Trichoderma viride, Fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Indriani Febrishaummy)

29 Biochemicals and Biofuels ABS-196

Suzihaque Maqsood-Ul-Haque1* , Nur Afrina Balqis binti Ahmad Shamsu1, Habsah Alwi1, Ummi Kalthum Ibrahim1, Sureena Abdullah2 and Normah Haron3



Rising energy usage and depleted oil sources have raised oil prices globally. The global increase in waste cooking oil (WCO) produced looks considerable. Malaysia has the potential to generate biofuel from WCO. This study produced biofuel utilising the transesterification process by a ratio of 2.6:1 bifunctional \(SrO-ZnO/Al_2 O_3 \) catalyst from a high FFA content of WCO with methanol. This research aims to create biofuel from WCO using a bifunctional \(SrO-ZnO/Al_2 O_3 \) catalyst and determine the optimal parameters for biofuel production by simultaneous transesterification and esterification. From the experimental research done, the maximum catalytic activity was determined where biodiesel yield was 73% which the operation conditions for transesterification were at 60 \( ^o C \), 8:1 methanol to oil ratio and 3 hours for reaction time complete. The characteristics of biofuel and WCO which are FFA content, acid value, kinematic viscosity, cloud and pour point were done where the value determined for biofuel were 0.282%, 0.564%, 44.873 \( mm^2 /s \), 18 \( ^o C \) and 2 \( ^o C \), and 3.384%, 6.786%, 73.889 \( mm^2 /s \), 19 \( ^o C \) and 5 \( ^o C \) for WCO respectively. GC-MS analysis was done to analyse the number of esters present in biofuel. Hence, the objectives of this research were achieved in determining optimal parameters of producing biodiesel and observing the highest yield of biofuel.

Keywords: Biofuel, waste cooking oil, SrO-ZnO/Al2O3, transesterification.

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Suzihaque Maqsood ul Haque)

30 Biochemicals and Biofuels ABS-230

Budi Saputra, Randi Kristiana, Retno Diyah Utari, Jasmansyah , Valentina Adimurti K, Tiani Yunita, Tiana Yunita, Siti Rosita

Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani


Has been developed the technology for making nanoparticles from rosella flower petal extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) of activity test as antifungal toward the growth of candida albicans and Tricophyton mentagrophytes, This the study aims to etermine the secondary metabolite content of rosella flower petal extract, to determine the activity as antifungal its effective concentration in inhibiting toward the growth of C. albicans and T. mentagrophytes. Rosella flower fetal extract was obtained by maceration by using 70% of ethanol dissolver and the extract obtained was carried out by phytochemical screening. Manufacture of nanoparticles obtained by ionic gelation method using chitosan. The antifungal activity was tested using the disc diffusion method with concentrations of 10%, 20% and 40%. The positive control used was nistatin (100 ppm) and the negative control used 2% DMSO. The results of this study indicate that rosella flower petal extract contains flavonoid compounds, saponins, quinones and phenols. Rosella flower petal nanoparticles extract concentrations of 10%, 20% and 40% can provide activity that inhibits the growth of the test fungus. There was an increase in the diameter of the inhibition zone at each increase in concentration, namely 10% (7 mm), 20% (7.7 mm) and 40% (10.5 mm) against fungus C. albicans and concentrations of 10% (7 mm), 20% (8.7mm) and 40% (10.2 mm) against the fungus T. mentagrophytes. All variations of extract concentration seed showed antifungal activity. The effective concentration is concentration 40%, it showed that the activity level was strong antifungal activity in inhibiting the growth of C. albicans and T. mentagrophytes.

Keywords: Extract, Nanoparticles, Hibiscus sabdariffa L, Antifungal, Candida albicans dan Tricophyton mentagrophytes.

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Budi Saputra)

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