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1 Agricultural Environment, Ecology and Resources ABS-9

Can Oecophylla smaragdina be used to suppress incidence of CVPD in citrus orchards in Indonesia?
G Andrew C Beattie * and Paul Holford

School of Science, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia


Citrus vein phloem degeneration (kerusakan pembuluh tapis pada jeruk) is the Indonesian name for the Asian form of the devastating and incurable citrus disease known internationally as huanglongbing. It is associated with a phloem-limited pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and transmitted by the Asiatic citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri. ACP originated in South Asia but was first observed on citrus in 1900 in Java to where it may have been introduced decades earlier on lemon or lime seedlings brought from South Asia to reduce the incidence of scurvy among European sailors and in colonial settlements. CLas appears to have been introduced to the Pasar Minggu area of Jakarta in the 1940s from southern China, after it was introduced to Guangzhou, directly or indirectly, from South Asia in the late 1920s-early 1930s. Minimising incidence of the disease relies on planting pathogen-free trees, removal of infected trees, and unstainable use of synthetic pesticides that do not prevent spread of the disease. Parasitoids and predators of ACP are killed by the pesticides. Evidence from China and Vietnam suggests that effective management of the disease may be feasible if the weaver ant (semut rangrang), Oecophylla smaragdina, is deployed, cultivated, and managed in orchards.

Keywords: Citrus- Diaphorina citri- History- Huanglongbing- Weaver ant

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Paul Holford)

2 Agricultural Environment, Ecology and Resources ABS-10

Brown Plant Hopper and Blast Disease in several varieties of rain-fed rice in Gunungkidul Yogyakarta
Kiki Yolanda and Arlyna B. Pustika

1Assessment Institute of Agricultural Technology of Yogyakarta, Jl. Stadion Maguwoharjo No. 22 Ngemplak, Sleman, DI Yogyakarta, Indonesia.


There is a challenge to increase the productivity of rain-fed rice in Gunungkidul Yogyakarta. Improvement varieties are suggested increase rice yield. However, brown plant hopper and blast disease are the main constraint in Gunungkidul rain-fed rice area. This research was aimed to determine the population of brown plant hopper and blast disease as the effect of varieties improvement in increasing rain-fed rice productivity. Research was conducted in Nglipar Gunungkidul Yogyakarta, September 2018 to January 2019. Experimental design was randomized block design with 6 treatments and 4 replications. Treatments were six rain-fed rice varieties (Inpago 8, Inpago 10, Inpago 12, Inpago Unsoed, Rindang 1, and Rindang 2). Results showed that Brown Plant Hopper population and blast disease intensity in Inpago 10, Inpago 12, and Inpago Unsoed were lower than in other varieties. Yield of Inpago 8, Inpago 10, Inpago 12, Inpago Unsoed, Rindang 1, and Rindang 2 were 6.20, 7.37, 7.01, 7.49, 6.20, and 6.84 ton ha-1, respectively. Varieties improvement resulted higher rice productivity compared to previous season in farmers practices which produced 4.00 ton ha-1 harvested rice.

Keywords: Rain-fed rice, brown plant hopper, blast disease, improvement varieties.

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Arlyna Budi Pustika)

3 Agricultural Environment, Ecology and Resources ABS-13

Chlorophyll Components, Total Flavonoid, Anthocyanin Content and Yield of Eleutherine palmifolia L. (Merr) on Different Shading Levels
Rina Ekawati (a*), Lestari Hetalesi Saputri (b)

a) Study Program of Plant Cultivation, Polytechnic of LPP, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
b) Study Program of Chemical Engineering, Polytechnic of LPP, Yogyakarta, Indonesia


Eleutherine palmifolia (L.) Merr is one of the horticultural that can be used as a medicinal plant. It was contained flavonoid and anthocyanin. The production of bioactive content on E. palmifolia was affected by light intensity. This experiment was conducted at Sukoharjo village, District of Ngaglik, Region of Sleman, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, from May to October 2020. The experiment was laid out with a single factor in a randomized block design (RBD). Three treatments were given, namely no shading, shading 55%, and shading 75%. Each treatment was repeated five times. The result showed that shading gave different effect on physiology and yield of E. palmifolia. Shading 55% and 75% produced the number of tiller and bulb of E. palmifolia lower than no shading. The fresh bulb weight of E. palmifolia in the range between 34.9 - 38.5 g plant-1. The chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll total, chlorophyll a/b ratio, and chlorophyll b/a ratio content on E. palmifolia^s bulb were not affected by different shading given. Shading 75% gave the highest total flavonoid and anthocyanin content of E. palmifolia^s bulb was 19.77% and 28.10% than no shading, respectively.

Keywords: bioactive content, Dayak onions, low light intensity, secondary metabolite

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Rina Ekawati)

4 Agricultural Environment, Ecology and Resources ABS-16

Yield Trials of Soybean (M7) Mutant Genotipe (Glycine max L. Merrill) Based on High Production and Resistance to Stem Rot Disease of Athelia rolfsii Curzi
Dhian Pertiwi1, Diana Sofia Hanafiah*2 and Irda Safni2

1)Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Padang Bulan, Medan, 20155, Indonesia
2)Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sumatera Utara,
Padang Bulan, Medan, 20155, Indonesia
*Corresponding author email: dedek.hanafiah[at]yahoo.co.id
Email addresses of coauthors: dhian.pertiwi18[at]gmail.com, irdasafni[at]gmail.com


Soybean consumption (Glycine max L.) in Indonesia has increased significantly. The very large demand for soybeans and limited ability to import demand the immediate development of domestic soybeans. One of the inhibitors that can reduce soybean production is a disease caused by the fungus Athelia rolfsii (Curzi). The development program needs to be supported by plant breeding as an effort to overcome problems in developing soybean cultivation technology, one of which is by assembling high-yielding varieties that are always accompanied by disease-resistant characters. This study was aimed to determine the level of resistance to stem rot disease of A. rolfsii Curzi and production of soybean (M7) mutan genotype under disease stress and optimum condition. This research was conducted in 2019 using an augmented design. The treatments used were 11 mutant genotypes and 3 comparison varieties, anjasmoro variety, argomulyo variety, and kipas putih variety. The results showed that genetic diversity and heritability between genotypes of the M7 generation had high values for each production character except for the characters of flowering age, number of productive branches and weight of 100 seeds. The appearance of agronomic characters observed in agronomic traits on inoculated area by A. rolfsii Curzi that caused stem rot disease is lower than the optimum field. Based on the plant sensitivity index, genotype M100A25 (3/7) and M200A12(6/5) had resistant to stem rot disease while M100A25(5/3), M100A25(3/4), M100A6(31/1), M200A11(32/3) had moderate resistance to stem rot disease. The result of strains selection on M7 generation resulted in two strain with high production character and resistance to stem rot disease, M100A25 (3/7) and M200A12(6/5).

Keywords: Athelia rolfsii- high production- resistent stem rot disease- sensitivity index- soybean mutant genotipe (M7)

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Dhian Pertiwi)

5 Agricultural Environment, Ecology and Resources ABS-25

Bambang Supriyanta 1), Frans Richard Kodong 2), Indah Widowati 1), Latifah Nurhayati 1)

1) Faculty of Agriculture, UPN Veteran Yogyakarta
2) Faculty of Information Engineering, UPN Veteran Yogyakarta


Efforts to minimize failure in melon cultivation can be done by implementing a smart farming system. Increasing the yield and quality of melons can be done by making hybrid varieties. The genetic diversity of the breeding material is very important in the basic population formation stage. This study aims to examine the genetic diversity and heritability of each melon strain S3 generation, so as to determine the strain of the potential to be used as the source material of genetic in the course of breeding. Research is conducted in Greenhouse CV. SG Agroniaga, Maguwoharjo Village, Depok District in the month January 2021 until May 2021. The design of the experiment that used is Complete Randomized Design (CRD) by treatment of a single form of genotypes which consists of 6 levels ie GR-1-3-7, GR-1-3-8, GR-1-3-20, GR-1-3-22, GR-1-2-2, and GR-1-1-3. Each treatment was repeated up to 4 times, so there are 24 units of trial. Each experimental unit consisted of 10 plants. The results showed that the morphology of the S3 generation melon strain in the generative phase contained differences in fruit characters based on net distribution, net intensity, net pattern, fruit aroma, and fruit texture. The value of genetic diversity on the parameters of plant height, male flowering age, harvest age, and fruit weight has a wide genetic diversity. The value of the high percent heritability for the characters of male flowering age, female flowering age, harvest age, and thickness of fruit flesh. The GR-1-3-20 and GR-1-1-3 lines are lines that have greater potential than other lines in terms of selection effectiveness on the parameters of male flowering age and fruit weight, so they are good to use for the next selection process.

Keywords: melon, smart farming system, Greenhouse, diversity of genetic

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Bambang Supriyanta)

6 Agricultural Environment, Ecology and Resources ABS-27

Muhammad Habibullah (1), Tri Suwarni Wahyudiningsih (1), Gembong Haryono (1), Muzayyanah Rahmiyah (1), Noor Farid (2*)

1.Program Studi Agroteknologi, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Tidar
2. Program Studi Agroteknologi, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman


The need for fruit in Indonesia is increasing every year along with the increase in population. The increasing demand for longan fruit with good quality and small seeds (seedless), it is necessary to plant breeding. Longan plant improvement can be done by various methods, one of which is mutation method with gamma ray radiation. This study aims to determine the diversity of longan plant mutants and changes in the character of longan plants due to mutations of gamma ray radiation. In this study, three varieties were used, namely longan Itoh, Wusan, and Kateki with two doses of gamma irradiation, namely 50 and 60 gray (Gy). There are changes in plants, namely in the morphological character and the rate of photosynthesis. The percentage of vegetative propragation was 1%.

Keywords: Gamma Rays, Longan, Mutation.

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Muhammad Habibullah)

7 Agricultural Environment, Ecology and Resources ABS-29

Dedy Mahyono (a) Edison Purba (b*) Marheni (b)

a) Magister Student of Agrotechnology, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Prof. A. Sofyan No. 3 Kampus USU, Medan, Indonesia Republic-20155.
b) Department of Agrotechnology, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Prof. A. Sofyan No. 3 Kampus USU, Medan, Indonesia Republic-20155.


This study aims to determine the pattern of planting points, and to determine the effect of weed control with pre-emergence herbicides on the growth and production of maize. This research was conducted from November 2019 to the end of February 2020 in Sendang Rejo Village, Binjai District, Langkat Regency. The design of this study used factorial split-plot design: Factor I: The planting point pattern (P)- P1 = Single row cropping point pattern (70 cm x 20 cm), P2 = Two row planting point pattern (20 cm x 20 cm, the next row spacing is 70 cm), P3 = Triangular planting point pattern (20 cm x 20 cm, distance with the next row of triangles 70 cm). Factor II: Herbicide Application (H)- H1 = No herbicide application (control), H2 = Weed free (manual control), H3 = applied with dimethenamide-P + saflufenacil 3 days before planting, H4 = applied with dimethenamide-P + saflufenacil at planting, H5 = applied with dimethenamide-P + saflufenacil aged 3 DAP H6 = applied with topramezone + atrazine at 14 DAP, H7 = applied with topramezone + atrazine at 21 DAP. Parameters observed in this study were plant height, amount of leaf chlorophyll and production. The results showed that the pattern of planting points had a very significant effect on plant height at the age of 6 and 8 WAP and total chlorophyll and corn production (Zea mays L.). Weed control with pre-emergence and post-growth herbicides had no significant effect on plant height, total chlorophyll and maize production (Zea mays L.). However, from this study it was found that the best herbicide application was at H7 (Toppramezone + atrazine at 21 days after planting). While the use of planting point patterns and weed control with pre-emergence and post-growth herbicides interacted significantly with the observation of total chlorophyll, while there was no significant effect on the observation of plant height and maize production (Zea mays L.).

Keywords: Planting point pattern, maize, herbicide

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Dedy Mahyono)

8 Agricultural Environment, Ecology and Resources ABS-35

Coffee farming management as impact of the distance of farmers^ home in Tanggamus District, Lampung Province, Indonesia
Rusdi Evizal (a*) and Fembriarti Erry Prasmatiwi (b)

a) Department of Agro-technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Lampung
* rusdi.evizal[at]fp.unila.ac.id
b) Department of Agribusiness, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Lampung


Tanggamus District is the second largest coffee producer in Lampung Province after West Lampung District. The main production region located at the highland of northern side of Tanggamus namely Sub-district of Air Naningan, Pulau Panggung, and Ulu Belu which bordering with protected forest area. This research was conducted in Sumberejo Sub-district of Tanggamus Regency using survey method and Focused Group Discussion, considering that Sumberejo was the population center and the main coffee producer among Talang Padang ex-subdistrict region. The study involved 3 villages that chosen purposively with 71 respondent of coffee farmers that determined using simple random sampling method, and 3 series of FGD in April 2019 until September 2020. Data was analyzed using both descriptive and quantitative method. The results show that there are 49% sample farmers that grow coffee located at medium (5-19 km) or long distance (&#8805-20 km) from home. There are 25-76% sample farmers work as seasonal migrant who usually (76.5% farmers) come to the garden once a month or once in two months. About 38% of sample farmers have coffee plantations outside Sumberejo Sub-district mainly at Sub-district of Air Naningan and Ulu Belu. Long-distance coffee plantations are characterized by larger landholdings (1.5 ha on average), higher coffee stands per hectare (2,456 trees on average), and are dominated by mature coffee trees (41% farmers) and younger coffee trees (29% farmers). The more distance from home the lower shade trees population is. However more divers of MPTS are found in coffee plantation that located close to home residency. The yield of coffee plantations that are close or medium distance from home ranges 0.75-0.77 ton per hectare per year. Meanwhile, coffee plantations that are located far distance from home get a yield of 0.94 ton per hectare.

Keywords: coffee, home distance, migrant, MPTS, plantation, shade trees, yield

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Rusdi Evizal)

9 Agricultural Environment, Ecology and Resources ABS-41

Optimization of delignification procces of reed leaves as main raw material for making art paper
A Ihwah, I A Dewi, A P Sari, A F R Utami, A P Mumpuni

Universitas Brawijaya


Waste is a material that is discarded or wasted from the results of natural or human activities that do not yet have economic value. One type of waste is agricultural waste. Agricultural waste is waste generated from agricultural activities such as fruit harvesting. Examples of agricultural waste include coconut leaves, corn leaves, rice straw, coconut husks, banana stems, and reed leaves. Reed plants is one type of grass plant that can grow on land that has moist or dry characteristics. Art paper is a handicraft product made from fibers derived from plants. Plants used as the basic material for making art paper are plants that contain cellulose. In the process of making paper, the beginning of the process is delignification. This study aims to obtain the optimum treatment in each process of delignification of reed leaves. The analytical method used is the Response Surface method using two factors: CH3COOH concentration of 85%, 90%, 95% and cooking times of 30 minutes, 60 minutes, and 90 minutes. The optimum treatment for the delignification of reed leaves obtained 90% CH3COOH concentration with a cooking time of 60 minutes.

Keywords: reed leaves, delignification, RSM, cooking time, CH3COOH concentration

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Azimmatul Ihwah)

10 Agricultural Environment, Ecology and Resources ABS-46

Abundance and biomass of earthworm as affected by long-term different types of soil tillage and fertilization on mungbean plantation at Ultisols soil
Ainin Niswati, Liyana, Dedy Prasetyo, Jamalam Lumbanraja

Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Lampung, Jl. Prof. Sumantri Brojonegoro No.1, Bandar Lampung 351 45, Lampung, Indonesia 35145


Long-term tillage and fertilization system have a strong impact on the abundance and biomass of earthworms in agriculture soils, however, enumerating their influence on mungbean plantation remains little studied. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of long-term tillage and fertilization and their interaction on the abundance and biomass of earthworms under mungbean plantations. Two factors of treatments consisted of tillage system (minimum tillage and intensive tillage) and fertilization (without fertilization and fertilization by NPK (15:15:15) + chicken manure) what has been done since the first (2017) to sixth planting season (2020). The hand sorting method was conducted and observed 3 times throughout the planting of mung beans. The results show that the abundance and biomass of earthworms are significantly higher in minimum tillage compared to intensive tillage as well as fertilization compare to without fertilization. The greatest abundance and biomass of earthworms were found in the maximum vegetative of mungbean. The interaction effect occurred at the maximum vegetative observation, namely in intensive tillage, there was no effect of fertilization, on the contrary, at minimum tillage, fertilization increased the abundance and biomass of earthworms. As a consequence, our results indicate that minimum tillage and fertilization significantly improve soil biological quality.

Keywords: Minimum tillage, earthworms, compound fertilization, chicken manure

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Ainin Niswati)

11 Agricultural Environment, Ecology and Resources ABS-49

Coffee spent grain-based biochar^s properties and application: A Systematic Review
Nimas Mayang Sabrina Sunyoto* Hendrix Yulis Setyawan* Ika Atsari Dewi* Yeni Erna Widyasari* Mesti Rizki Putri* Rizky Aulia Muji Santoso

Department of Agro-industrial Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia.


Abstract. Coffee is one of the most potential commodities in the world, being the second most traded commodity. Currently, it is consumed as the second-largest beverage around the world and has become part of the lifestyle of today^s generation. As a result of the increasing number of its utilisation, it generates a considerable amount of waste, the coffee spent grounds (CSG) is one of the instances. In general, the CSG that are produced are only disposed of directly (landfill). On the other hand, CSG still contains carbohydrates, oil, nitrogen and carbon which have the potential to be used to produce several products as a means of valorization, including biodiesel, biopolymers, composites, compost and biochar. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the use of CSG as a feedstock of biochar, conditions of biochar production, its properties and application as an adsorbent of chemicals causing environmental damage. The research method used a systematic review of the selected journals on the topics, then was further analyzed both in the theory and content. The results of the literature review suggest that CSGs have potential use as a feedstock for biochar production and have been researched for an adsorbent on a wide range of pollutants. The CSG biochars are effective adsorbents for cadmium (II), Methylene Blue, Tetracycline, Zn (II) compounds, and ineffective on Sulfamethoxazole compounds.

Keywords: biochar, biorefinery, coffee waste, coffee spent grain, pyrolysis, waste utilisation, valorisation, adsorbent

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Mesti Rizki Putri)

12 Agricultural Environment, Ecology and Resources ABS-51

Crop Performance and Farming Analyses of ^Merah Delima^ Papaya and ^California^ Papaya on Sub-Optimal Land in Jambi
Syafri Edi (a) and Rima Purnamayani (b*)

(a)Jambi Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology
(b)Indonesia Center for Agriculture Technology Assessment and Development


Papaya is a tropical fruit that has a great demand by the community at an affordable price and can adapt to various types of soil, including sub-optimal land. Jambi province has a quite large area of sub-optimal land. The aimed of the study was to determine the growth, production and farming analysis of Merah Delima and California Papaya on sub-optimal land. The research was carried out at the Agricultural Technology Park in Suka Maju Village, Geragai District, Tanjung Jabung Timur Regency, Jambi. Parameters observed included plant vegetative and generative performance and farming analysis. The results showed that Merah Delima Papaya provided the advantages in production parameters, namely the number of fruit and fruit weight more than the California variety. The analysis of profitable papaya farming has total profit of Rp. 104,736,000,- per hectare for merah delima papaya nd Rp. 61,728,000,- per hectare for papaya California. The results of the analysis of BC ratio value of 2.95 for the papaya merah delima and the BC ratio of 1.95 for the papaya California, indicated that farming these two papaya varieties provides benefits and will feasible to cultivate.

Keywords: papaya, swampy land, Agrucultural Technology Park

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Rima Purnamayani)

13 Agricultural Environment, Ecology and Resources ABS-52

Analysis of Fat Content of Six Types of Rambutan Seeds (Nephelium lappaceum L.) As Biodiesel Raw Material
Rafika Indah Fitriyanti (a*), Endang Yuniastuti (b), Nandariyah (b)

(a). Department of Agronomy, Graduate School, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A Surakarta 57126, Indonesia *rafikaindah19[at]gmail.com
(b). Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A Surakarta 57126, Indonesia


Energy needs are increasing, but its availability is running low, so biodiesel is an alternative to renewable energy and is environmentally friendly because it is made from vegetable and animal oils. One of the potential resources as raw material for biodiesel is rambutan seeds. The process of this research was carried out using the Soxhlet Woodman method 1941. This study aimed to determine the best oil content of six types of rambutan seed that have the potential as biodiesel raw materials. The best rambutan seed oil yield is in the garuda type rambutan seeds of 36.65%, so the germplasm needs to be developed and preserved. The results of the oil test stated that rambutan seed oil had sulfur value, calorific value (HHV and LHV), and the freezing point of rambutan seed oil. While the boiling point was below the SNI biodiesel.

Keywords: Rambutan Seed, Biodiesel, Rambutan Seed Oil

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Rafika Indah Fitriyanti)

14 Agricultural Environment, Ecology and Resources ABS-61

Integrated Environment Concept: Technology for Processing Agriculture, Cattle Farming, and Household Waste at Kalibaru Wetan Village, Banyuwangi, East Java
Ifa Aulia Chusna (a*), Eka Bagus Gunandito (b), Taufik Fuad Dermawan (c), Rika Ernawati (d)

a,b,c,d) Mining Engineering Department, Faculty of Mineral Technolocy, UPN ^Veteran^ Yogyakarta
Jalan Padjajaran, Condong Catur, Sleman, DIY 55283
*email: 112180008[at]student.upnyk.ac.id


Banyuwangi District is one of the largest areas that have an agricultural land area in East Java. According to the central statistics of the Banyuwangi District report in 2019, Kalibaru Wetan village located in Kalibaru Sub-district has 311 Ha for harvest area and 61.29% for society who work in the agriculture sector. The concept of an integrated environment in agricultural waste, cattle farming waste, and household waste has economic value for society and can support sustainable development. The research aimed to analyze the treatment methods and the potential of agricultural waste, cattle farming waste, and household waste. Furthermore, planning the implementation of an integrated environmental concept as technically in the Kalibaru Wetan Village will be discussed in this paper. The methodology research has begun with collecting primary-secondary data and processing data with the concepts and theories of literary studies. The environmental analysis is used for determining the processing method for wastes so that the processing method can be more sustainable for society. The idea of an integrated environment in this study consisted of activities- processing straw into cattle feed, processing agricultural waste into compost, processing cattle farming waste into biogas, processing bio-slurry into liquid fertilizer, waste sorting programs, and planting training. The integrated concept was sustained and relating concept with the others so that the integrated concept has potential for giving benefit to society if implemented in Kalibaru Village.

Keywords: biogas, compost, integrated environment, waste

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Ifa Aulia Chusna)

15 Agricultural Environment, Ecology and Resources ABS-78

Morphologically Diversity of Colletotrichum sp. conidia associated with anthracnose on chili
Danar Wicaksono1, Maftuh Kafiya2

1 Agrotechnology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta, Indonesia-
2 Agribusiness Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
1 danarwicaksono[at]upnyk.ac.id - 2 kafiyamaftuh[at]upnyk.ac.id


The research conducted to observe the diversity of Colletotrichum sp. associated with anthracnose on chili. The diversity was observed from morphology of conidia. Colletotrichum sp. was isolated from Capsicum frustescens, C. annum (big chili variety and red curly chili) with anthracnose symptoms. In the isolation process, two isolates were obtained from C. annum big chili variety (BA and BB), 5 isolates were isolated from C. annum red curly chili (DPTK1, DPTK2, KA, KC, and KD), and 7 isolates from C. frustescens (DPTR1, DPTR2, RA, RB, RC, RD, and UPN4). Conidia length, shape, and color were observed. Isolate BA from C. annum big chili variety has the longest conidia than other isolate in average (16.10). Isolate RA from C. frustescens has the shortest conidia than other isolates (10.05). All isolates have hyaline color. Isolate BA, DPT K-1, RC, RD, and UPN4 have Fusiform shape. Isolate with cylindrical with rounded apices is BB, DPT K-2, KA, KD, DPT R-1, DPT R-2, RA, and RB. Conidia of Colletotrichum sp. isolated from Capsicum frustescens and C. annum have hyaline colour and diversity on the length and shape.

Keywords: anthracnose, chilli, Colletotrichum sp., diversity

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (DANAR WICAKSONO)

16 Agricultural Environment, Ecology and Resources ABS-83

Integrating GIS and Satellite Remote Sensing to Evaluate Land Suitability for Rice in Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Partoyo1* and Herwin Lukito2

1 Program Study of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta 55283, INDONESIA
2 Program Study of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Mineral Technology, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta 55283, INDONESIA
* Corresponding author: partoyo[at]upnyk.ac.id


Land evaluation is essential for assessing environmental limitations that inhibit higher yield and productivity in food crops, including rice. This research aimed to determine the suitable lands for sustainable rice production in the northern part of the Yogyakarta Special Region using phenological datasets from remote sensing and geospatial datasets of soil-plant biophysical properties. Sentinel-2 satellite images were processed to obtain layers for land use and land cover (LULC) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Validation used statistical data of rice productivity from the Agricultural and Fisheries Agency of Sleman Regency. Vector and raster layers of maps were processed in ArcGIS 10.2.1 software. Finally, suitability classes were determined using a weighted overlay of spatial analysis based on reclassified raster layers of all parameters and the results from the multicriteria analysis.

Keywords: satellite- remote sensing- sentinel-2- land suitability- rice

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Partoyo PARTOYO)

17 Agricultural sciences and engineering ABS-1

The Use of Biochar and Biofilm Biofertilizer (BiO2) to Increase Rice Yield
Sudadi1, Tri Wida Rachmadani1, Suryono1, Vita Ratri Cahyani1, S. Minardi1 dan Hadiwiyono2

FP UNS Surakarta


The use of biochar can improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. The application of biochar is expected to further increase the effectiveness of BiO2-biofilm biofertilizer in supporting rice growth so that it can provide higher yields. The purpose of this study was to obtain the optimal formula for the use of biochar and BiO2 for rice yields. The study was conducted in a greenhouse using a pot with a split plot design with three replications. The first factor (main plot) is the concentration of BiO2 (0 and 100 %), the second factor (sub plot) dose of biochar (0- 15 and 30 tons ha-1) and the third factor (sub-plot) method of use (mixed homogeneously to soil and is given at soil surface). The biochar used is sized to pass the 2 mm sieve. Observation variables include plant growth and yield as well as physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. Statistical analysis using ANOVA followed by Duncan^s multiple range test. The results showed that the use of biochar up to a dose of 30 tons ha-1 in the application of 100% concentration of BiO2 liquid biofertilizer showed an increase in rice growth.

Keywords: Biochar- Biofilm- Biofertilizer- rice- eco-friendly agriculture

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Sudadi Sudadi)

18 Agricultural sciences and engineering ABS-2

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of two rice varieties with AtMyb61 gene for lignin content manipulation towards biomass refinery
Syamsidah Rahmawati*, Carla Frieda Pantouw, Amy Estiati, Budi Satrio, Dwi Widyajayantie, Dwi Astuti, Agus Rachmat, Vincentia Esti Windiastri, Ade Nena Nurhasanah, Yuli Sulistyowati and Satya Nugroho**

Research Centre for Biotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences
Jl. Raya Bogor KM 46 CSC-BG


The Atmyb61 gene plays an important role in lignin biosynthesis. Lignin is potentially used for renewable chemicals and biomaterials. This study was aimed to modify the lignin content of two rice varieties Nipponbare (ssp Japonica) and Rojolele (ssp Javanica). The AtMyb61 gene under the control of a strong constitutive promoter CaMV 35S was transformed into those rice varieties mediated by the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA 4404. From this Agrobacterium transformation, a total of 192 putative transgenic plants were obtained, of which 85 and 18 putative transgenic plants for Nipponbare and Rojolele, respectively. The highest regeneration efficiency (57.73%) and transformation efficiency (10.20%) was obtained from rice cv Nipponbare. Meanwhile, regeneration and transformation efficiency of rice cv Rojolele was, consecutively, almost two times (28.93%) and four times (2.25%) lower than that of rice cv Nipponbare. In planta HPT leave assay showed that 85 (68.55%) and 18 (26.47%) plants of rice cv Nipponbare and Rojolele, respectively, expressed hygromycin phosphotransferase indicated that the rice plants positive contained inserted genes. Further evaluation on the expression of rice genes related to lignin biosynthesis, lignin content, and other physiological and agronomical characters will be carried out.

Keywords: Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, Atmyb61 gene, rice, lignin

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Syamsidah Rahmawati)

19 Agricultural sciences and engineering ABS-11

Sensitivity of Bulb Tissue for Detection of Fusarium Causes Moler disease In Shallot
Salim Widono (1), Hadiwiyono (2), SH Poromarto (2), Supyani (2) and Nur Wahyuni (3)

(1) Student of Doctoral Program at Universitas Sebelas Maret (UNS) Surakarta
(2) Doctoral Program in Agricultural Sciences at Universitas Sebelas Mret (UNS) Surakarta
(3) Student of Agrotechnology Study Program at Universitas Sebelas Maret (UNS) Surakarta


Moler caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.cepae is a seed-borne disease, so the disease intensity in the field is depend on the amount of initial inoculum in the infected bulbs as seed. Therefore, the detection of seed-borne pathogens is important to determine the potential of their transmission. The aim of this research was to evaluate the sensitivity of the bulb tissue of shallot based on the pathogen Infection Index by incubation method on agar media. The experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design with five replications and three varieties of shallots (Thailand, Bima, and Bauji). Each treatment unit was placed in a Petri dish with a diameter of 20 cm, containing 40 mL PDA on which 16 pieces of tissue at the tip, middle, and base of the bulb tissues were placed, which were incubated for 7 days. Pathogen Infection Index is a parameter that was observed macroscopically and microscopically. The results showed that the base of the bulbs tissue of the three varieties tested showed higher sensitivity than the other part to detect the presence of F. oxysporum f.sp. cepae in shallot.

Keywords: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae, seed-borne pathogen, Moler disease, shallot, seed detection

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Salim Widono)

20 Agricultural sciences and engineering ABS-17

Nazly Aswani, Asih K. Karjadi, and Agnofi Merdeka Efendi



Indonesia has been the largest garlic importing country for decades since the productivities and qualities of national garlic varieties failed to meet domestic demand. Breeding garlic for higher yield conventionally is almost impracticable due to its flowering hinderance, meanwhile the biotechnological approach needs longer time to implement the result. Thus, the most feasible improvement might be done through agronomic aspects. This research was aimed to search for alternative ways in cultivation techniques to improve garlic production. The research was conducted from June 2020 until February 2021 on IVEGRI^s Margahayu experimental station, Lembang, West Java. A split-split plot design was laid out for the combination between varieties as the main plot, plant spacing as the subplot, and plant density (number of seed cloves planted on each planting hole) as the sub-sub plot. The results showed that among all characters observed, the significant interactions between these three factors occurred only in the number of stomata, and seed bulb diameter (4 months after harvested). Meanwhile, the significant interactions either between variety and plant spacing or variety and plant density were recorded in the percentage of the 1st week population, fresh weight per sample, weight after curing per sample, dry weight (4 months after harvested) per sample and weight loss per sample. Pseudo stem diameter was significantly affected by the interaction only between variety and plant density, meanwhile bulb diameter after curing was affected by variety and plant spacing separately. However, the height of dried bulb and number of chlorophyll (SPAD) showed highly significant differences only among the varieties.

Keywords: garlic, national varieties, plant spacing, plant density,weight loss

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Nazly Aswani)

21 Agricultural sciences and engineering ABS-28

Effectiveness and Compatibility of Bacillus and Trichoderma in Increasing Disease Tolerance of Garlic to Basal Rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae
SH Poromarto, Herlina R Putri, S Widono, Supyani, Hadiwiyono

Universitas Sebelas Maret


The main obstacle to garlic cultivation is the attack of Fusarium oxypsorum f. sp. cepae (FOCe) causes basal rot. Bacillus and Trichoderma are popular antagonist microorganisms that can act as biological control agents (BCA). This paper would like to report on the effectiveness and compatibility of Bacillus sp. and Trichoderma sp. as a biological control of basal rot of garlic based on laboratory and Greenhouse tests. The results of in vitro studies show that Bacillus and Trichoderma are potential antagonist agents through antibiosis and even Trichoderma through competition. Meanwhile, in vivo, the two biological control agents were not effective in reducing wilting intensity but effective in reducing basal rot intensity and increasing disease tolerance. Increasing disease tolerance is showed by the yield that is higher significantly than those control with no BCA. Bacillus sp. and Trichoderma sp. have been shown to be incompatible BCA based on both in vitro and in vivo tests, which are indicated by the effectiveness of the combination application being less effective than alone.

Keywords: Fusarium oxysposrum, Bacillus, Trichoderma, basal rot, garlic

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Hadiwiyono Hadiwiyono)

22 Agricultural sciences and engineering ABS-34

The potency of Vis/NIR spectroscopy for classification of soybean based of colour
M Fahri Reza Pahlawan, Betty Mei Ari Murti, Rudiati Evi Masithoh

Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No. 1 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia


Soybean in various colour is easy to identify using human eyes. However, it is hard to perform manual method for on-line production. Therefore, detection of colour for sorting the soybean is important especially for industries which require a rapid and real-time task. This research was conducted to study the potency of a modular type of VIS/NIR spectroscopy at wavelength of 350-1000 nm to classify black, green, and yellow of soybean seed and flour. Principal component analysis (PCA) and PCA Linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) were used based on various spectra pre-processing techniques. Results showed that PCA-LDA model was able to classify soybean seeds of 97% accuracy and soybean flour of 100% accuracy.

Keywords: soybean, Vis/NIR, spectroscopy, classification

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Rudiati Evi Masithoh)

23 Agricultural sciences and engineering ABS-36

Fitri Yelli (a), Joko Prasetyo(b*), Tri Maryono (b), Maria Fransiska (c)

(a) Department of Agronomi and Horticulture,
(b) Department of Plant Protection, and
(c) Department of Agrotechnology, Lampung University, Lampung 35145, Indonesia


Keywords: Corn, Disease, Induced resistant, Pathogen

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Fitri Yelli)

24 Agricultural sciences and engineering ABS-48

Nanoencapsulation of Essential Oils from Polianthes tuberose with the Addition of Eucalyptol as a Potential Therapy for Anosmia due to COVID-19
Quinnike Aisy Maskurin(a*), Intan Salsabila Putri(a), Sania Isma Yanti(a), Indira Prakoso(a), Wenny Bekti Sunarharum(a)

a) Department of Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia


Olfactory therapy with essential oils can improve the ability to smell and become one of the strategies to relieve anosmia. Tuberose essential oil formulated with eucalyptol can be a new strategy for olfactory therapy by exploring new sources of essential oils. The unstable characteristics of essential oils can be improved by nanoencapsulation. This research was conducted by formulating the essential oil of midnight flower with eucalyptol through sensory testing. The nanoencapsulation process was carried out with nanosilica on a magnetic stirrer for 24 hours. The characteristics of essential oil nanoencapsulation were tested by SEM, chemical component analysis by FTIR and GCMS and stability test by evaporation rate test. The 1:2 formulation (tuberculous flower: eucalyptol) was obtained as the best result of the sensory test. The GCMS and FTIR tests confirmed the main components of the tuberose essential oil formulation and eucalyptol, namely 1,8-cineole which was stable after the nanoencapsulation process. The nanoencapsulation process in formulated essential oils is known to have an average shrinkage percentage (6.664%) which is much lower than essential oils without encapsulation (10.145%). Nanoencapsulation increased the stability and activity of the active components of tuberose essential oil and eucalyptol.

Keywords: 1,8-cineole- eucalyptol- mesoporous nano-silica- nanotechnology- olfactory therapy

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Quinnike Aisy Maskurin)

25 Agricultural sciences and engineering ABS-50

Effect of consentration and time of chitosan administration on Pachira breeding (Pachira aquatica)
Endang Yuniastuti (a*), Angelica Christina Nugroho (b), Djati Waluyo Djoar (a), Imanovta Ichti Santoso Putri (b)

a) Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University Jalan Ir Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Indonesia
b) Undergraduated School, Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture,
Sebelas Maret University Jalan Ir Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Indonesia


Pachira is an ornamental plant that can be used as biodiesel, because of the high-fat content in the seeds. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that can be used to replace fossil fuels. By using biodiesel as a fuel, it will support a sustainable agricultural system that can produce energy for other sectors outside of agriculture. Pachira plant breeding has not been widely carried out in Indonesia, so the potential use of pachira seeds as biodiesel has not been highlighted. This research was conducted to determine the concentration and timing of chitosan administration for pachira breeding. The study was conducted in Blora Regency using a completely randomized block experimental design (RAKL) with two treatment fac-tors, namely concentration and time of administration. The concentration was divided into three levels, namely 1%, 2%, and 4% concentration, the time of administration was divided into three levels, namely in the morning, afternoon, morning, and afternoon. The administration of chitosan was carried out every week as much as 20 ml according to the treatment. Maintenance carried out is to pour 50 ml of water every day on all research samples. The results showed that treatment with a concentration of 4% and watering in the afternoon could stimulate plant height growth at the beginning of the seedling phase, having the most leaves, producing greener leaf colors and having wider roots.

Keywords: Pachira- Chitosan- Breeding

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Endang Yuniastuti)

26 Agricultural sciences and engineering ABS-55

Effect of NAA anda BAP Concentrations on Rambutan Growth (Nephellium lappaceum L.) in Vitro
Endang Yuniastuti (a*), Dyne Galuh Chintiana (b), Sukaya (a), Imanovta Ichti Santoso Putri (b)

a) Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University Jalan Ir Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Indonesia
b) Undergraduated School, Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University Jalan Ir Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Indonesia


Sustainable farming systems are agricultural system that are environmentally friendly. Biodiesel is one type of alternative fuel for renewable energy that is environmentally friendly with low CO2 and sulfur gas emissions. Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) may be used as biodiesel fuel substitute for fuel oil because it contains high fatty acids. Rambutan seed fat can be used in high premium specialty fats. It is necessary to breed rambutan plants through in vitro culture to overcome the availability of raw materials and the quality of seed production. The success of increasing crop productivity followed by environmental sustainability is the application of an environmentally friendly sustainable agricultural system. The main aim of this research is to find out the best growing regulatory substances and varieties in the growth of rambutan plants in vitro. It was carried out using a completely Randomized Design with two treatment factors. The first factor was varieties consisting of rapiah, binjai, ace and the second factor was the growth regulator type consists of four levels: 0 ppm, NAA 0.5 ppm, BAP 4 ppm, NAA 0.5 ppm + BAP 4 ppm. The results showed that the combination treatment of NAA 0.5 ppm + BAP 4 ppm was able to produce an average when the fastest shoots appeared (13.33 DAP), the average when the fastest leaves appeared (20.67 DAP), the average number of leaves (4 leaves), the average number of the fastest roots (21 DAP), the average number of roots (3 roots) and the longest average root is 3.67 cm in the binjai variety.

Keywords: In vitro- Nephelium lappaceum- NAA- BAP

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Endang Yuniastuti)

27 Agricultural sciences and engineering ABS-74

Tan Elfianka Novyza Siagian1, Ellen Rosyelina Sasmita2, Endah Budi Irawati3

Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional ^Veteran^ Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta 55282, Indonesia


Shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.) is a horticultural commodity that has good potential to be developed in Indonesia. To overcome uncertain climatic conditions and demand that continues to increase along with the increase in population in Indonesia, it is necessary to develop technology in shallot cultivation that using NFT hydroponic system. This research was carried out with the aim to determine the interaction between plant spacing and tuber cutting on the growth and yield of shallot. The study used a two-factor split-plot design replicated 3 times. The main plot used plant spacing consisting of 3 levels (10x10 cm, 10x15 cm, and 10x20 cm) and the subplot used the tuber cutting consisting of 3 levels (without cutting, cutting 1/3 parts, and cutting 1/4 parts). Data on growth and yield parameters were recorded and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a 5% level. The results showed that there were no interactions between plant spacing and tuber cutting of the shallot^s growth and yield. The treatment of tuber cutting produced tangible growth and yield, but there were no significant differences between the kinds of plant spacing.

Keywords: Shallot, NFT Hydroponics System, Plant Spacing, Tuber Cutting

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Tan Elfianka Novyza Siagian)

28 Agricultural sciences and engineering ABS-77

Application of Cow Manure and Mycorrhiza on the Growth of Biduri (Calotropis gigantea)
Samanhudi (a*), Sri Hartati (a), Muji Rahayu (b), Mochammad Danny Sukardan (c), Nadia Alifia Rahma (b)

a) Study Program of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sebelas Maret, and Center for Research and Development of Biotechnology and Biodiversity, LPPM Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A Surakarta 57126 - Indonesia
*) samanhudi[at]staff.uns.ac.id
b) Study Program of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A Surakarta 57126 - Indonesia
c) Center for Textile, Agency for Standardization and Industrial Services Policy, Jl. Jend. A. Yani 390 Bandung 40272 - Indonesia


Biduri (Calotropis gigantea) is a herbaceous plant that has a lot of potentials yet farmers do not cultivate it properly. For instance, many farmers apply inorganic fertilizers excessively which can damage the environment, so that they do not embody environmentally-friendly agriculture. One of the efforts to achieve sustainable agriculture is the use of organic fertilizers. This research was carried out from March 2021 to October 2021 at the screen house, field laboratory of Jumantono, Soil Biology laboratory, Chemistry and Soil Fertility laboratory, and laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sebelas Maret. This research used a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two factors and three replications. The first factor is cow manure which consists of three levels: K0 = without manure, K1 = 10 tons/ha, K2 = 20 tons/ha. The second factor is mycorrhiza which consists of four levels: M0 = 0 g/plant, M1 = 5 g/plant, M2 = 10 g/plant, M3 = 15 g/plant. The data obtained were analyzed by analysis of variance and DMRT. The results showed that the interaction between cow manure and mycorrhiza was not increase the growth of biduri- giving a dose of cow manure 20 tons/ha gives best result for the yield of plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, and number of branch- mycorrhizal administration was not increase the growth of biduri.

Keywords: Biduri, Calotropis gigantea, cow manure, mycorrhiza

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Samanhudi Samanhudi)

29 Agricultural sciences and engineering ABS-85

Potency of guava shoot extract as a control means against Diaphorina citri
M E Poerwanto12 and C Solichah1

1Faculty of Agriculture, UPN ^Veteran^ Yogyakarta
2Correspondent author
2email: mofit.eko[at]upnyk.ac.id


CVPD is the most devastating disease on citrus production in Indonesia and in the world. It is vectored by Diaphorina citri. Guava leave extract is a prospective control means for reducing vector population. Research was conducted to investigate the repellent effect of guava shoots to adult of D. citri (psyllids) and the attractiveness to its predator Menochilus sexmaculatus. Repellent effect of grinded dried of upper, middle, bottom shoot of red, white, and non-seed guava shoots to D. citri and M. sexmaculatus of mixed gender were determined in Y-tube olfactometer. The result showed that guava shoots had repellence effect to D. citri. Highest repellence effect was found from white guava shoots, followed by non-seed guava and red guava. Repellent effect was 80.7%, 72.7%, and 70.0% respectively. However they did not have any repellent effect to M. sexmaculatus. Guava shoots had the attractiveness effect to M. sexmaculatus adult. The effect was higher on upper, middle, and bottom shoot of red guava, and white guava, and middle shoot of non-seed guava than on upper shoot of citrus. Exception phenomenon was found on upper and bottom shoot of non-seed guava. The attractiveness on those shoots was lower than on citrus leaves. It was able to use guava shoots to repel D. citri and to attract M. sexmaculatus adult as a part of control means of D. citri vector of CVPD disease.

Keywords: Diaphorina citri, guava, CVPD, vector, M. sexmaculatus

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (MOFIT EKO POERWANTO)

30 Food Science and Technology ABS-47

Achmad Ridwan Ariyantoro*, Anastriyani Yulviatun, Dian Rachmawanti Affandi, Asri Septiarani

Department of Food Science and Technology, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta


Keywords: HMT- Jack Bean- Starch Modification

Share Link | Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Anastriyani Yulviatun)

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